Locating Points on a Globe | fabula-fantasia.info
These coordinates, called latitude and longitude, are used to create maps like the Thirty years later, 25 nations met to officially declare it the prime meridian. geographical coordinate of a point. All meridians meet at the North and South Poles. Longitude is related to latitude, the measurement of distance north or south of the Equator.
The north and south poles are the two imaginary points where the axis would enter and exit from the earth if the axis were a pole or a line see Fig.
The Terrestrial Coordinate System
The equatoris the imaginary primary reference line drawn around the earth halfway between the north and south poles.
The half of the earth to the north of the equator is the northern hemisphere; the half to the south is the southern hemisphere Fig. The prefix hemi- means "half"; thus, hemisphere means "half-sphere. Movement toward the North Pole is northerly in direction. Movement toward the South Pole is southerly in direction.
Degrees of latitude are measured from an imaginary point at the center of the earth. If the earth was cut in half, this imaginary point would be intersected by a line drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole and by a line drawn from the equator on one side of the earth to the equator on the other Fig. If an observer is standing on the North Pole, he could draw a circle in the snow that has a circumference of 1 meter.
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It would contain degrees of meridians. The physical distance between meridians strongly depends on the latitude of the observer. Each degree of latitude and longitude is divided into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds.
Latitude and Longitude
This allows us to assign an exact position to any point on the Earth. By taking readings of the stars and the Sun, sailors can find their latitude and longitude, and find their position on the sea.
Scientists, explorers, and geographers use them to make accurate maps of the locations and features of lands that they are investigating. Why do scientist care about mapping? Today mapmakers and scientists use longitude and latitude to map out changes in the environment, in the location and extent of biomes, of animal populations, and patterns of weather and pollution. An entire school of geography, called biogeography, has grown up around the idea of mapping living systems.
Check Your Understanding Circle one answer: A latitude of 85 degrees would be far from the equator near the equator? A longitude of degrees would be in England across the globe from England.
Advanced reading below Latitude and Longitude: The Age of Exploration, which began about 1, AD, demanded a lot of information about distant locations to support travel and trade.
Portuguese navigators, then later Spanish and English ships provided information about Africa, India, the Americas, and the Far East to European nations. Russian navigators explored the Northern Pacific and North American coasts, as well as the interior of Asia.
Older maps did not commonly have a vertical and horizontal grid overlaid on physical features. Convention arose at that time to use a system of horizontal lines on the globe called latitudes. The Tropic of Capricorn is the parallel at which the Winter or Southern or December Solstice occurs when once a year the sun appears directly overhead the most southerly parallel.
This event happens in the month of December. These two parallels enclose the area of the Earth known as The Tropics characterized by warm to hot weather and lush vegetation. It is identified as the latitude that falls at the point that is equidistant from the North Pole and the South Pole. The sun is perpendicular to the Equator twice a year in March and September. This event is called the Equinox. It is the longitudinal meridian of reference.
The Prime Meridian divides the earth into two hemispheresthe Western Hemisphere to the west and the Eastern Hemisphere to the east. Other helpful pages on WorldAtlas.