# Where longitude and latitude meet

### Locating Points on a Globe | fabula-fantasia.info

These coordinates, called latitude and longitude, are used to create maps like the Thirty years later, 25 nations met to officially declare it the prime meridian. geographical coordinate of a point. All meridians meet at the North and South Poles. Longitude is related to latitude, the measurement of distance north or south of the Equator.

The north and south poles are the two imaginary points where the axis would enter and exit from the earth if the axis were a pole or a line see Fig.

## The Terrestrial Coordinate System

The equatoris the imaginary primary reference line drawn around the earth halfway between the north and south poles.

The half of the earth to the north of the equator is the northern hemisphere; the half to the south is the southern hemisphere Fig. The prefix hemi- means "half"; thus, hemisphere means "half-sphere. Movement toward the North Pole is northerly in direction. Movement toward the South Pole is southerly in direction.

Degrees of latitude are measured from an imaginary point at the center of the earth. If the earth was cut in half, this imaginary point would be intersected by a line drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole and by a line drawn from the equator on one side of the earth to the equator on the other Fig. If an observer is standing on the North Pole, he could draw a circle in the snow that has a circumference of 1 meter.

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It would contain degrees of meridians. The physical distance between meridians strongly depends on the latitude of the observer. Each degree of latitude and longitude is divided into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds.

### Latitude and Longitude

This allows us to assign an exact position to any point on the Earth. By taking readings of the stars and the Sun, sailors can find their latitude and longitude, and find their position on the sea.

Scientists, explorers, and geographers use them to make accurate maps of the locations and features of lands that they are investigating. Why do scientist care about mapping? Today mapmakers and scientists use longitude and latitude to map out changes in the environment, in the location and extent of biomes, of animal populations, and patterns of weather and pollution. An entire school of geography, called biogeography, has grown up around the idea of mapping living systems.

Check Your Understanding Circle one answer: A latitude of 85 degrees would be far from the equator near the equator? A longitude of degrees would be in England across the globe from England.