Anatomical terms of relationship and comparison

Anatomical Terms & Meaning: Anatomy Regions, Planes, Areas, Directions

anatomical terms of relationship and comparison

Your Guide to Human Anatomy. It is really important to understand the basic terms, which would be used again and again throughout the Terms of Relation. Study Anatomical Terms Of Relationship And Comparison Flashcards at ProProfs -. Start studying Anatomy Terms of Relationship and Comparison, Laterality, and Movement. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other .

Many of these are taken from Latin and Greek languages and each has a very specific meaning.

Anatomical Terms of Relationship and Comparison

It is really important to understand the basic terms, which would be used again and again throughout the course of learning anatomy. Therefor, it is highly recommended that you try to learn the following terms. Anatomical terms for describing positions: In this position the body is straight in standing position with eyes also looking straight.

The palms are hanging by the sides close to the body and are facing forwards. The feet also point forwards and the legs are fully extended. Anatomical position is very important because the relations of all structures are described as presumed to be in anatomical position.

Anatomical Position Supine position: In this position the body is lying down with face pointing upwards.

anatomical terms of relationship and comparison

All the remaining positions are similar to anatomical position with the only difference of being in a horizontal plane rather than a vertical plane. Person Lying in Supine Position Source: This is the position in which the back of the body is directed upwards.

The body lies in a horizontal plane with face directed downwards. Prone Position Lithotomy position: In this position the body is lying in a supine with hips and knees fully extended. The feet are strapped in position to support the flexed knees and hips. Lithotomy Position Anatomical terms for describing planes: Planes Median or Mid-Sagittal plane: This is the plane which divides the body into equal right and left halves.

It is any plane parallel to the median plane. This plane divides the body into unequal right and left halves. It is a vertical plane at right angle to median plane.

If you draw a line from one ear to another from above the head and then divide the whole body along this line, the plane formed will be frontal plane. It is also known as coronal plane. It is the horizontal plane of the body. There are also terms that describe specific body parts. Palmar describes the palm side of the hand.

Dorsal describes the back side of the hand. Plantar describes the bottom of the foot. Anatomical Reference Planes A plane is a two-dimensional surface — its dimensions are length and width. The body reference planes are used to locate or describe the location of structures in the body.

Brain scans are often of sagittal plane slices from ear to ear. Abdominal CAT scans are often transverse plane slices like a stack of coins.

  • Anatomical terms for describing planes:
  • Anatomical terms for describing positions:

The three basic planes intersect at right angles to each other. When the three basic planes intersect in the center of the body as seen in the image to the right they can be used to describe various relationships within the body.

Main Reference Planes Sagittal plane median, wheel — this vertical top to bottom plane divides the body into left and right sides; a plane that divides the body down the middle into equal left and right sides is the Median Sagittal Plane. Body Cavities Body cavities are areas in the body that contain our internal organs.

Basic Anatomical Terms : Human Anatomy

The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two main cavities. The dorsal cavity is on the posterior back side of the body and contains the cranial cavity and spinal cavity.

anatomical terms of relationship and comparison

In human anatomy, dorsal, caudal and posterior mean the same thing. The ventral cavity is on the front anterior of the body and is divided into the thoracic cavity chest and abdominopelvic cavity. Dorsal Cavity The dorsal cavity is further divided into subcavities: Ventral Cavity The ventral cavity is on the front of the trunk. The diaphragm the main muscle of breathing divides the ventral cavity into two simple subcavities: It is further divided into the pleural cavities left and right which contain the lungs, bronchi, and the mediastinum which contains the heart, pericardial membranes, large vessels of the heart, trachea windpipeupper esophagus, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and other blood vessels and nerves.

The abdominal cavity is between the diaphragm and the pelvis. It is lined with a membrane and contains the stomach, lower part of the esophagus, small and large intestines except sigmoid and rectumspleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, adrenal glands, kidneys and ureters.

The pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs and the rectum. The thoracic cavity is open at the top and the abdominal cavity is open at the bottom. Both cavities are bound on the back by the spine. Even though their location is defined, the shape of these cavities can change.

Anatomical Terms of Relationship and Comparison - PurposeGames

How they change is very different. Breathing is the main way the shape of these two cavities changes. The abdominal cavity changes shape similar to a water-filled balloon. When you squeeze the balloon, the shape changes as the balloon bulges. The abdominal cavity can also change shape based on volume—that is how much you eat and drink.

The more you eat and drink, the harder it is for the diaphragm to compress the abdominal cavity—which is why it is harder to breathe after a large meal. Also, an increase in volume of the abdominal cavity decreases the volume in the thoracic cavity—you can take in less air. The thoracic cavity changes both shape and volume when you breathe. When you breathe out, the volume decreases; when you breathe in the volume increases.