These are the top-down processing and the bottom-up processing. Psychology > . Psychologist E.J Gibson criticized the explanation of Gregory regarding visual illusions as they are merely artificial examples, not images that can be found. Are bottom-up and top-down traits in dual-systems models of risky behavior genetically distinct? Much of the personality research related to dual-process models of risky For example, the nucleus accumbens exhibits the greatest percent signal .. Second, clarifying the relationship between these systems may lead to. For example, fear might be elicited from the bottom-up when Emotion regulation refers to any process an individual uses to Bottom-up and top-down emotions differ in their psychological and neural mechanisms .. Neural circuitry underlying the regulation of conditioned fear and its relation to extinction.
For example, a large number of studies on cognitive reappraisal have used the same picture set Lang et al. However, the down-regulation of the emotion elicited by these pictures is commonly compared with and contrasted with studies that use only bottom-up stimuli, such as studies manipulating attention to and verbal processing of emotional faces Hariri et al.
Does mode of emotion generation influence emotion regulation? Bottom-up and top-down emotions differ in their psychological and neural mechanisms.
It is possible that these differences have important consequences for subsequent emotion regulation attempts, making emotion regulation more or less successful depending on the method of generation.
The idea that the method of emotion generation might interact with subsequent regulation is reminiscent of other examples in which the activation of one cognitive process facilitates a subsequent similar or identical process.
Most directly, a generation-regulation interaction may be akin to a property of memory known as transfer appropriate processing TAP; Roediger et al. TAP specifies that the greater the overlap between the processes engaged during encoding and the processes engaged during retrieval, the more successful is retrieval.
Are bottom-up and top-down traits in dual-systems models of risky behavior genetically distinct?
More broadly, process priming has been observed when seemingly unrelated cognitive processes are supported by a common neural substrate. For example, the induction of approach-related emotions enhances performance on verbal working memory, and the induction of withdrawal-related emotions improves performance on spatial working memory Gray, The proposed mechanism is shared hemispheric processing in the brain: In the case of emotion regulation, which processes might overlap between emotion generation and regulation?
One process that is engaged during top-down generation and reappraisal is the degree to which the affective meaning or appraisal is brought into the forefront of attention. Reappraisal requires that this appraisal is re-considered, changed and that altered reappraisal is maintained in working memory.
Because top-down generation activates the appraisal, and reappraisal manipulates it, it is possible that reappraisal is more effective when performed upon top-down generated emotions. To date, however, no one has investigated the possibility of an interaction between the method of generation top-down or bottom-up and the success of subsequent emotion regulation.
The present study The goal of the present study was to test for an interaction between emotion generation and emotion regulation. One challenge is that the methods most commonly used to generate emotions from the top-down and bottom up differ on many low-level characteristics that impact amygdala activation, such as the extent of linguistic vs visual processing required, luminance, size of stimulus on visual field and the amount of time required to recognize the stimulus as emotional.
Top-Down VS Bottom-Up Processing
Therefore, the strongest test of emotion generation—regulation interactions is to compare bottom-up and top-down generation as history effects, when these low-level differences are no longer present.
Therefore, we adapted a design that has been used earlier to demonstrate the use of top-down generated emotion to modulate the neural response to a neutral stimulus Kim et al. In this paradigm, emotional information pervades an otherwise neutral context, imbuing a previously innocuous stimulus with an emotional character.
We expanded this design, so that the present study is the first attempt to use bottom-up emotion generation to bias the response to a neutral stimulus, and the first to collect self-reported negative affect as a measure of this bias.
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In addition, we added a top-down emotion regulation instruction, in which individuals used reappraisal to consider the bottom-up or top-down emotion that was generated earlier in less negative terms. This allowed us to compare the success of using reappraisal to decrease negative emotion on emotions that had a history of being generated in these two ways, without the low-level differences that usually are confounded with bottom-up and top-down emotion generation.
We predicted an interaction between emotion generation and regulation, such that top-down generated emotions would be more successfully decreased by reappraisal than bottom-up generated emotions, as evidenced by self-reported negative affect and amygdala activation. Participants were screened via email to exclude those with: We recruited only women to reduce the heterogeneity of emotional reactivity and regulation observed earlier between men and women Kring and Gordon, ; McRae et al.
Participants provided written informed consent and were compensated for their participation. This project was approved by the institutional review board at Stanford University. Task For each trial, participants saw a piece of background information top-down negative sentences, bottom-up fearful faces, or scrambled faces or sentences for 4 s. Participants then saw a fixation cross for a variable duration between 0 and 4 s, averaging 2 s Figure 1.
A neutral face Tottenham et al. A colored frame bordered the neutral face, and participants were trained to look and respond naturally when one frame color appeared, and use reappraisal to decrease their emotional response when the other color appeared. The assignment of background information and neutral faces to the look or reappraise condition was counterbalanced across participants.
Finally, a fixation cross appeared for a variable duration between 2 and 6 s, averaging 4 s, between trials.
Top-Down VS Bottom-Up Processing
In contrast, top-down emotions occur in three steps: If this is all getting a little too clinical for you, bear with me. The researchers I mentioned above conducted a cool study that involved inducing both bottom-up and top-down emotions in a group of participants.
Then, they asked the participants to try to decrease the negative impact of their emotions through cognitive reappraisal a fancy term for readjusting your thinking about something.
Interestingly, the researchers found that people were better able to regulate top-down emotions than bottom-up ones. This makes sense to me. Bottom-up emotions are more visceral and seem connected to the fight-or-flight response mechanism with which we are born. It would be difficult, and questionably effective, to force a thought pattern into the mix. If a car pulls out in front of us, do we really want to stop and think about it before deciding how to respond?
So, stimulus influences what we perceive, our perception. So, if I know absolutely nothing about something, then the stimulus or whatever it is I'm looking at, yet I don't know anything about, I've never seen it, I don't have any preconceived cognitive constructs about what it is I'm looking at.
The stimulus basically is influencing my perception. So, for example let's imagine that I'm looking at a cockpit of a plane. I'm not a pilot, so I'm not really too familiar with everything and everything kinda looks fairly confusing. So, basically all the different stimuli, so this stimulus, a bunch of gauges, and this rudder-looking thing, I'm basically looking at all the different little parts of something that is new and novel to me, and trying to kind of comprehend what it is I'm looking at.
So, this is bottom-up.
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This is when you start with no preconceived idea of what it is that you're looking at, and allow the stimulus to influence your perception of what it is that you're looking at. So, bottom-up processing is data-driven, and your perception of what it is that you're looking at directs your cognitive awareness of the object.