Danton Versus Robespierre: The Quest for Revolutionary Power
Maximilien Robespierre, the architect of the French Revolution's the British De Havilland Comet, makes its maiden test-flight in England. The _____ (led by Marat, Danton, and Robespierre) represented workers. Girondists Jacobins keeping of birth, death, and marriage records right to elect the. No relationship in the French Revolution offers more eloquent testimony to the power Men such as Danton and Robespierre could not co-exist, and the Revolution . All sides of the trap were carefully tested so that Danton could not escape.
Moving to London infor fear of being "drawn into dissipation," he set himself up informally as a doctor, befriended the Royal Academician artist Angelica Kauffmanand began to mix with Italian artists and architects in the coffee houses around Soho.
Highly ambitious, but without patronage or qualifications, he set about inserting himself into the intellectual scene with works on philosophy "A philosophical Essay on Man," published and political theory "Chains of Slavery," published His first political work, Chains of Slavery, inspired by the extra-parliamentary activities of the disenfranchised MP, and later Mayor of London, John Wilkeswas most probably compiled in the central library there.
By Marat's own colourful account, he lived on black coffee for three months, during its composition, sleeping only two hours a night, and then, after finishing, sleeping soundly for thirteen days in a row.
A published essay on curing a friend of gleets gonorrhoea probably helped to secure his medical referees for an MD from the University of St Andrews in June InMarat moved to Paris following a brief stopover in Geneva to visit his family.
Here his growing reputation as a highly effective doctor, along with the patronage of the Marquis de l'Aubespinethe husband of one of his patients, secured his appointment, in Juneas physician to the bodyguard of the comte d'Artois, Louis XVI 's youngest brother who was to become king Charles X in Scientific writing[ edit ] Marat was soon in great demand as a court doctor among the aristocracy and he used his new-found wealth to set up a laboratory in the marquise de l'Aubespine's house.
Soon he was publishing works on fire and heat, electricity and light.
He then went on to publish three much more detailed and extensive works, expanding on each of his areas of research. His method was to describe in detail the meticulous series of experiments he had undertaken on a problem, seeking to explore and then exclude all possible conclusions but the one he reached.
Recherches Physiques sur le Feu[ edit ] The first of Marat's large-scale publications detailing his experiments and drawing conclusions from them was Recherches Physiques sur le Feu Research into the Physics of Firewhich was published in with the approval of the official censors.Georges Danton
The report avoided endorsing Marat's conclusions but did speak of his "new, precise and well-executed experiments, appropriately and ingeniously designed.
Since the Academy had endorsed his methods but said nothing to agree with his conclusions, this claim drew the ire of Antoine Lavoisierwho demanded that the Academy repudiate it.
When the Academy did so, this marked the beginning of worsening relations between Marat and many of its leading members. A number of them, including Lavoisier himself, as well as Condorcet and Laplace took a strong dislike to Marat.
La nuit de Varennes and Danton | Fiction and Film for Scholars of France
When a beam of sunlight shone through an aperture, passed through a prism and projected colour onto a wall, the splitting of the light into colours took place not in the prism, as Newton maintained, but at the edges of the aperture itself. Over a period of seven months, from June to JanuaryMarat performed his experiments in the presence of the commissioners so that they could appraise his methods and conclusions. The drafting of their final report was assigned to Jean-Baptiste Le Roy.
The report was finally produced after many delays in Mayand consisted of just three short paragraphs.
Significantly, the report concluded that "these experiments are so very numerous According to the title page it was printed in London, meaning either that Marat could not get the official censor to approve it, or he did not want to spend the time and effort to do so. One of his major areas of interest was in electrical attraction and repulsion. Repulsion, he held, was not a basic force of nature.
Committee of Public Safety
He addressed a number of other areas of enquiry in his work, concluding with a section on lightning rods which argued that those with pointed ends were more effective than those with blunt ends, and denouncing the idea of " earthquake rods " advocated by Pierre Bertholon de Saint-Lazare. Yet he took no part in the demonstrations before the royal palace of the Tuileries on June Although his part in the overthrow of the monarchy by the insurrection of August 10,remains obscure, he was largely credited with its success.
However small a part he played in removing the king, he was elected minister of justice by the Legislative Assembly. Though not officially its president, Danton dominated his colleagues by his strength of character, the aura of his Revolutionary past, and his ability to make swift decisions.
When the news arrived that Longwy had been taken by the invading armies Prussia had allied itself with Austria in July on August 25,and Jean-Marie Rolandminister of the interior, proposed that the government should move from Paris to Blois, Danton objected vigorously. The proclamation he then caused the Executive Council to adopt bears his stamp: On the morning of September 2, when it was learned that Verdun was besieged and while the populace broke into the prisons to search for suspects and traitors, Danton, in the Legislative Assembly, delivered the most famous of his speeches: There is no proof, however, that the massacres were organized by him or by anyone else, though it is certain that he did nothing to stop them.
Just as in the case of the August insurrection, the September massacre was not the act of one man but of the people of Paris.
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He immediately made every effort to end all the disputes between the Revolutionary parties, but his policy of conciliation was thwarted by the Gironde, which demanded that he render an accounting when he left his post as minister of justice. Danton could not justifylivres of secret expenditures.
He emerged from this conflict embittered and with his political prestige diminished. He was present, however, on January 15,and voted for death without reprieve. Although absent from the trial, Danton had played a part in it since the autumn of Only when the plan miscarried did he vote for the death of the king. Danton remained in the mainstream of the Revolution, not without often engaging in intrigue. His dealings with Dumouriez, who commanded the army of Belgium, have never been clarified.
After the defeat of Neerwinden March 18,when Dumouriez went over to the Austrians, the Gironde accused Danton of complicity with the General. Boldly turning the tables, Danton made the same accusation against the Girondins. The break was irreparable.
Robespierre overthrown in France
For three months Danton was effectively the head of the government, charged especially with the conduct of foreign affairs and military matters. During this second period in the government he pursued a policy of compromise and negotiation. He tried in every direction to enter into diplomatic conversations with the enemy.
Robespierre was taken to the Luxembourg prison in Paris, but the warden refused to jail him, and he fled to the Hotel de Ville.
Armed supporters arrived to aid him, but he refused to lead a new insurrection.
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When he received word that the National Convention had declared him an outlaw, he shot himself in the head but only succeeded in wounding his jaw. Shortly thereafter, troops of the National Convention attacked the Hotel de Ville and seized Robespierre and his allies. The next evening—July 28—Robespierre and 21 others were guillotined without a trial in the Place de la Revolution. During the next few days, another 82 Robespierre followers were executed. The Reign of Terror was at an end.