Terminology of the British Isles - Wikipedia
United Kingdom: Geographical and historical treatment of the United Scotland, ruled from London since , formally was joined with England and Relations between these constituent states and England have been marked by controversy and, at times, open rebellion and even warfare. . England political map. UK Map. The UK part of Europe and is a member of the European Union (EU). Click here to find out England, Scotland and Wales together form Great Britain. The map above demonstrates the difference between the British Isles, Now for the fun bit: Everyone from England, Scotland and Wales is also British, but The Peoples Of The British Isles: A New History From to the.
However, many on the English side were concerned by the dynastic implications of matrimony, including some Privy Councillors.
Languages of the United Kingdom
In countering these fears Henry VII is reputed to have said: The peace did not last in "perpetuity"; it was disturbed in when Henry VIII of Englandwho had succeeded his father four years before, declared war on France. In response France invoked the terms of the Auld Allianceher ancient bond with Scotland. James duly invaded Northern England leading to the Battle of Flodden. In the decades that followed, England's relations with Scotland were turbulent. By the middle of Henry's reign, the problems of the royal succession, which seemed so unimportant inacquired ever bigger dimensions, when the question of Tudor fertility — or the lack thereof — entered directly into the political arena.
Margaret's line was excluded from the English succession, though, during the reign of Elizabeth I concerns were once again raised.
In the last decade of her reign it was clear to all that James VI of Scotlandgreat-grandson of James IV and Margaret, was the only generally acceptable heir. Fromin the last years of Elizabeth I's life, certain English politicians, notably her chief minister Sir Robert Cecil maintained a secret correspondence with James to prepare in advance for a smooth succession.
Cecil advised James not to press the matter of the succession upon the queen but simply to treat her with kindness and respect. Strategic fortresses were put on alert, and London placed under guard.
Elizabeth died in the early hours of 24 March.
Are England, Scotland and Wales Countries? | Picture BritainPicture Britain
Within eight hours, James was proclaimed king in London, the news received without protest or disturbance. The crowds of people, one observer reported, were so great that "they covered the beauty of the fields; and so greedy were they to behold the King that they injured and hurt one another. The twilight years of Elizabeth had been a disappointment; and for a nation troubled for so many years by the question of succession, the new king was a family man who already had male heirs in the wing.
But James's honeymoon was of very short duration; and his initial political actions were to do much to create the rather negative tone which was to turn a successful Scottish king into a disappointing English one.
Twelve dates which shaped Scotland's relationship with England
The greatest and most obvious of these was the question of his exact status and title. James intended to be King of Great Britain and Ireland. His first obstacle along this imperial road was the attitude of the English Parliament. German officials in Berlin had managed to stop the Kaiser from proposing a German protectorate over the Transvaal.
It was the new policy to assert its claim to be a global power. Bismarck's conservativism was abandoned, as Germany was intent on challenging and upsetting international order. Britain began to see Germany as a hostile force and moved to friendlier relationships with France. Anglo—German naval arms race The British Royal Navy dominated the globe in the 19th century, but afterGermany attempted to achieve parity.
The resulting naval race heightened tensions between the two nations. In Admiral Tirpitz became German Naval Secretary of State and began the transformation of German Navy from small, coastal defence force to a fleet that was meant to challenge British naval power.
Tirpitz calls for Risikoflotte Risk Fleet that would make it too risky for Britain to take on Germany, as part of wider bid to alter the international balance of power decisively in Germany's favour. Into protect its new fleet. Germany traded the strategic island of Heligoland in the North Sea with Britain. In exchange Britain gained the Eastern African island of Zanzibarwhere it proceeded to construct a naval base.
The Germans were upset at not being informed. Wilhelm made a highly-provocative speech for Moroccan independence. The following year, a conference was held at Algeciras in which all of the European powers except Austria-Hungary now increasingly seen as little more than a German satellite sided with France.The Countries of the United Kingdom in a Nutshell
A compromise was brokered by the United States for the French to relinquish some of their control over Morocco. He sent a small warship, the SMS Pantherto Agadirmade saber-rattling threats and whipped up anger by German nationalists. France and Germany soon agreed on a compromise, with France gaining control of Morocco and Germany gaining some of the French Congo. The British cabinethowever, was angry and alarmed at Germany's aggression.
Lloyd George made a dramatic "Mansion House" speech that denounced the German move as an intolerable humiliation.
There was talk of war until Germany backed down, and relations remained sour. Since relations with Germany regarding colonies and the naval race had improved in it did not expect trouble. However Liberal Prime Minister H. Asquith and especially Foreign Minister Edward Grey were committed to defending France, which was weaker than Germany.
The emerging Labour Party and other socialists denounced war as a capitalist device to maximize profits. Inthe leading German expert in the Foreign Office, Eyre Crowewrote a memorandum for senior officials that warned vigorously against German intentions.
Crowe argued that Germany presented a threat to the balance of power like that of Napoleon. Germany would expand its power unless the Entente Cordiale with France was upgraded to a full military alliance. In Germany, left-wing parties, especially the SPD or Socialist Partyin the German electionwon a third of the vote and the most seats for the first time. German historian Fritz Fischer famously argued that the Junkerswho dominated Germany, wanted an external war to distract the population and to whip up patriotic support for the government.
Kennedy downplayed the disputes over economic trade and imperialism. There had long been disputes over the Baghdad Railway which Germany proposed to build through the Ottoman Empire.
An amicable compromise on the railway was reached in early so it played no role in starting the July Crisis. Germany relied time and again on sheer military power, but Britain began to appeal to moral sensibilities. Germany saw its invasion of Belgium as a necessary military tactic, and Britain saw it as a profound moral crime, a major cause of British entry into the war.
Kennedy argues that by far the main reason for the war was London's fear that a repeat ofwhen Prussia led other German states to smash France, would mean Germany, with a powerful army and navy, would control the English Channel and northwestern France. British policymakers thought that would be a catastrophe for British security.
Cornish in Cornwall Irish and Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland Scots and Scottish Gaelic in Scotland Welsh in Wales Under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages which is not legally enforceable, but which requires states to adopt appropriate legal provision for the use of regional and minority languages the UK government has committed itself to the recognition of certain regional languages and the promotion of certain linguistic traditions.
CornishScots in Scotland and Northern Ireland in the latter territory officially known as Ulster Scots or Ullansbut in the speech of users simply as Scottish or Scots are protected by the lower level only Section II. In Northern Ireland, the department responsible for culture displays official administrative identity in English, Irish and Ulster Scots A number of bodies have been established to oversee the promotion of the regional languages: In Wales, the Welsh Language Commissioner Comisiynydd y Gymraeg is an independent body established to promote and facilitate use of the Welsh language, mainly by imposing Welsh language standards on organisations.
It receives funding from the UK government and the European Unionand is the regulator of the language's Standard Written Formagreed in Controversies[ edit ] Language vs dialect[ edit ] There are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing languages from dialectsalthough a number of paradigms exist, which give sometimes contradictory results. The distinction is therefore a subjective one, dependent on the user's frame of reference.
Since there is a very high level of mutual intelligibility between contemporary speakers of Scots in Scotland and in Ulster Ulster Scotsand a common written form was current well into the 20th century, the two varieties have usually been considered as dialects of a single tongue rather than languages in their own right; the written forms have diverged in the 21st century.
The government of the United Kingdom "recognises that Scots and Ulster Scots meet the Charter's definition of a regional or minority language".