Relationship between Man and Environment
The concept of geography as the study of man and environment relationship is quite This means that relatively superior adaptations increase while relatively. Man- Environment Relationship Relationship between SC and Env. Effective means of using rain forest env. and minimize the problems (soil erosion, soil. Thus all living beings including man and their environment are mutually reactive The changes in the relationship between man and environment depend upon.
The MA research programme was launched with support from the United Nations in Coevolution and Coadaptation The terms coevolution and coadaptation describe the never-ending process of mutual adjustment and change between human social systems and the environment.
Peoples actions have consequences on the environment.
But also the environment influences human activities. Human social systems have to adapt to their specific environment. Natural phenomena like storms, earthquakes force people to react. These natural phenomena can either be directly or not primarily caused by human actions and again influence human behaviour as people have to respond to a new situation. Many national and European institutions adopted this conceptual framework. It identifies the various causal chains of links between human activities and environmental degradation.
The model distinguishes several categories of indicators in order to explain how the state of the environment is changed due to human activities.
Man and Environment: Essay on Man and Environment
Human activities increase or mitigate pressure on the environment. At one time the environmental problems debated in international organizations would predominantly have been those recognized by the developed countries—the need to control pollution and the desirability of conserving samples of the ecological and genetic richness and the natural beauty of the earth.
Since the United Nations Conference of the Human Environment, however, it has been increasingly realized that environmental issues are also of vital concern to developing countries and that over much of the world the environ-mental problems are still those associated with poverty—poor housing, bad public health, malnutrition and inadequate employment.
Both the creation and the recognition of environmental problems depend closely on the way society is organised and on its values and objectives. Changes on the relationship between man and his physical environment depend to a large degree on changes in the organisation and aims of society. If man is to escape from a situation in which much energy and resources are devoted to correcting part mistakes, his aim must be to build a society which is intrinsically compatible with its environment Fig.
The net effect of these changes, particularly during the second half of the twentieth century, was an increase in exposure to many hazards and increased potential for catastrophic losses.
Hazards can cause major financial problems, as well as killing many people and damaging such property.
Analysis of recent trends shows significant regional disparities in losses, particularly between developed and developing regions. Financial losses associated with natural hazards are highest among the developed countries, such as the USA, where natural hazard losses exceed those of many other national social problems, including fire and crime. In the developing world, in contrast, the costs are largely measured in terms of human suffering and hardship.
Many low-income populations are forced to occupy illegal settlements on low-lying lands, steep hillsides, floodplains or other hazard-prone areas. They are very vulnerable to significant health risks from flooding, landslides, mud slides and other natural hazards, and their dwellings and infrastructure are subject to accidents, massive damage and collapse Fig.
Three technological advancements of man were highly detrimental to environment—especially air, land and water. These opened the floodgate of anthropogenic pollution of air, water and land and threatening the very existence of life on mother earth.
With the development of religious concepts several religions—particularly Judaism, Christianity and Islam—viewed the created order as existing for human exploitation. In the Vedic literature, mother earth is personified as the Goddess Bhumi or Prithvi. The abundant mother showers her mercy on her children.
In Buddhism, there is very strong emphasis on how we should relate to the natural world—for example, there is a prohibition on animal slaughter. Religious-ethical sanctions encouraged human activities leading to large scale degradation of the environment without any consideration for sustaining the abiotic and biotic elements of the ecosystem.
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- Human social system
- Coevolution and Coadaptation
Some of the important ones are: Over-Exploitation of Natural Resources: Mining of earth resources, large scale urbanisation, network of roadways were built at the cost of fertile agriculture or forest lands.
Inundation of millions of acres of land, villages and human settlements by dams and hydroelectric projects are glaring examples of the cost of human progress. A rough estimate indicate that out of a total global production of 7. Intervention with Biogeochemical Cycles: C, O2, N2, P, S and trace element cycles maintaining the steady state environmental conditions and, therefore, sustaining life on earth, have been drastically interfered by man for need as well as greed.
Man and Environment: Essay on Man and Environment
Pollution of the Environment: Anthropogenic pollution of air, water and land has taken colossal dimensions. Man is constantly increasing the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Comfort seeking modern humans are paving the way of O3 layer depletion through CFCs. Man is dumping industrial and city sewage wastes into lakes, rivers and seas. Toxic chemicals used in modern agriculture for combating pests, diseases and weeds plus synthetic fertilizers are silently killing useful microbes maintaining the biogeochemical cycles, useful insects, birds, butterflies of the forests and fishes in the streams and lakes.
At least five activities of man may lead to global cataclysm killing all life on the earth: