Industrial relations - Wikipedia
provide an overview of the employment relationship. ○. ○ be critically analytical about the concepts of unitarism and pluralism. ○. ○ be aware For example, if someone is treated well they are more likely to perform well Paul Edwards offers an alternative, non-Marxist yet radical perspective. He says. There are four primary theories of industrial relations: unitarist, pluralist, Marxist and radical. These theories emphasize (or dismiss) different. The employment relationship can be conceptualised as Alan Fox () introduce three main frames of reference; unitarist, pluralist and radical.
Unitarism consist of management and staff members sharing a common goal, through their loyalty towards the organisation Fox, Companies who use this approach depends their workplace on strong sense of cooperation between the employer and employee, which allows workers to focus on the primary aim.
In addition, companies with this approach may experience poor communications and misunderstanding between the employees and employers. Ultimately, limiting the company to strengthen the performance of employment relations. The pluralism frame of reference focuses more on compromising and collective bargaining as it recognises different interests within sub-groups can cause conflict, primarily between the management and trade union.
Contrasted to unitarism, pluralism recognise the importance of conflict and negotiation. Cradden emphasise that companies that utilise this practice values negotiation and coming to an agreeable resolution that benefits both the employees and employers equally. A major limitation of this approach is the power and control that managers possess.
Managers have the authority to propose a solution when conflicts cannot be resolved through negotiation. This emphasises the primary power belongs to the manager, thus could increase the frustration of employees within a company.
Lastly, the radical approach to IR suggest that employs and employers are bound to have conflict due to the result of capitalism. Although, most managers are drawn to this concept, some major drawbacks include the potential of inequality of power towards the employers.
Thus, the radical approach consists of both benefits and limitation towards the employment relationship. Through tension is more direct in work place; gradually it extends to the whole industry and sometimes affects the entire economy of the country.
Therefore, the management must realize that efforts are made to set right the situation. Services of specialists in Behavioural Sciences namely, psychologists, industrial engineers, human relations expert and personnel managers are used to deal with such related problems. Assistance is also taken from economists, anthropologists, psychiatrists, pedagogists, tec.
What Are the Different Theories of Industrial Relations?
In resolving conflicts, understanding of human behavior — both individual and groups — is a pre-requisite for the employers, the union leaders and the government — more so for the management.
Conflicts cannot be resolved unless the management must learn and know what the basic what the basic needs of men are and how they can be motivated to work effectively.
It has now been increasingly recognized that much can be gained by the managers and the worker, if they understand and apply the techniques of human relations approaches to industrial relations. The workers are likely to attain greater job satisfaction, develop greater involvement in their work and achieve a measure of identification of their objectives with the objectives of the organization; the manager, on their part, would develop greater insight and effectiveness in their work.
Theoretical perspectives Industrial relations scholars have described three major theoretical perspectives or frameworks, that contrast in their understanding and analysis of workplace relations. The three views are generally known as unitarism, pluralist and radical. Each offers a particular perception of workplace relations and will therefore interpret such events as workplace conflict, the role of unions and job regulation differently.
The radical perspective is sometimes referred to as the "conflict model", although this is somewhat ambiguous, as pluralism also tends to see conflict as inherent in workplaces.N2401B Employee Relations Theoretical Perspectives
Radical theories are strongly identified with Marxist theories, although they are not limited to kosala. Unitary Perspective In unitarism, the organization is perceived as an integrated and harmonious system, viewed as one happy family.
A core assumption of unitary approach is that management and staff, and all members of the organization share the same objectives, interests and purposes; thus working together, hand-in-hand, towards the shared mutual goals.
Furthermore, unitarism has a paternalistic approach where it demands loyalty of all employees. Trade unions are deemed as unnecessary and conflict is perceived as disruptive. From employee point of view, unitary approach means that: Working practices should be flexible.
Individuals should be business process improvement oriented, multi-skilled and ready to tackle with efficiency whatever tasks are required. If a union is recognized, its role is that of a further means of communication between groups of staff and the company. The emphasis is on good relationships and sound terms and conditions of employment.
A unitarist perspective: HRM (cont.)
Employee participation in workplace decisions is enabled. This helps in empowering individuals in their roles and emphasizes team work, innovation, creativity, discretion in problem-solving, quality and improvement groups etc.
Employees should feel that the skills and expertise of managers supports their endeavors. From employer point of view, unitary approach means that: Staffing policies should try to unify effort, inspire and motivate employees. The organization's wider objectives should be properly communicated and discussed with staff. Reward systems should be so designed as to foster to secure loyalty and commitment. Staff-management conflicts - from the perspective of the unitary framework - are seen as arising from lack of information, inadequate presentation of management's policies.
HRM 107 : Unitarism, Pluralism and Radicalism
Pluralistic-Perspective In pluralism the organization is perceived as being made up of powerful and divergent sub-groups - management and trade unions. This approach sees conflicts of interest and disagreements between managers and workers over the distribution of profits as normal and inescapable. Consequently, the role of management would lean less towards enforcing and controlling and more toward persuasion and co-ordination.
Trade unions are deemed as legitimate representatives of employees. Conflict is dealt by collective bargaining and is viewed not necessarily as a bad thing and if managed could in fact be channeled towards evolution and positive change. Realistic managers should accept conflict to occur.
There is a greater propensity for conflict rather than harmony. They should anticipate and resolve this by securing agreed procedures for settling disputes. The implications of this approach include: The firm should have industrial relations and personnel specialists who advise managers and provide specialist services in respect of staffing and matters relating to union consultation and negotiation.
Independent external arbitrators should be used to assist in the resolution of disputes.