Relationship Between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland | Definition, Anatomy, Physiology
Explain the interrelationships of the anatomy and functions of the The hypothalamus is a structure of the diencephalon of the brain located anterior and inferior to The pituitary gland consists of an anterior and posterior lobe, with each lobe . Visit this link to watch an animation showing the role of the hypothalamus and. You have your hypothalamus and pituitary gland to thank. Read about them What is the endocrine system? The hypothalamus links the nervous and endocrine systems by way of the pituitary gland. The pituitary consists of an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe, each of which have distinct functions. The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary to release or inhibit The pituitary glands are made of the anterior lobe and posterior lobe.
The hypothalamus is shown in figure 1.
Hypothalamus The main function of the hypothalamus is to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It responds to a variety of internal and external signals of the body via the nervous system. It controls the blood pressure, the levels of circulating hormones, body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional activity.
The function of the autonomic nervous system is also controlled by the hypothalamus. Two types of hormones are produced by the hypothalamus. One type of hormones are sent to the posterior pituitary gland for the secretion.
They are the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. Antidiuretic hormone reabsorbs water from the kidney. Oxytocin contracts the uterus during the childbirth and releases breast milk. The other type of hormones may contain inhibitory or stimulating actions on the secondary endocrine organs of the body.
Functional Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
These hormones are sent to the anterior pituitary gland for the secretion. What is Pituitary Gland The pituitary gland is the major endocrine gland, which is attached to the base of the brain and controls the production and release of hormones from other endocrine glands.Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Functions, Animation
The two lobes of the pituitary gland are called the anterior pituitary adenohypophysis and the posterior pituitary neurohypophysis. The anterior pituitary comprises glandular cells. The posterior pituitary gland comprises nerve cells.
The structure of the pituitary gland is shown in figure 2. Posterior pituitary secretes the hormones produced in the hypothalamus. The secretions of the other endocrine glands are regulated by the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland.
Therefore, the pituitary gland is called the master gland of the body. It regulates the secretion of hormones from the adrenal gland, thyroid glandhypothalamus, thymuspineal gland, pancreas, and gonads.
Through these hormones, growth, development, metabolismblood pressure, sexual maturation, and reproduction are controlled. Relationship Between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Vascular Connection Hypothalamus is located below the thalamus whereas pituitary gland is located below the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary to release or inhibit pituitary hormone production. In some cases, the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to stimulate or inhibit hormone production.
Essentially, the pituitary acts after the hypothalamus prompts it. The pituitary glands are made of the anterior lobe and posterior lobe.
An Overview of the Pituitary Gland
The anterior lobe produces and releases hormones. The posterior lobe does not produce hormones per se—this is done by nerve cells in the hypothalamus—but it does release them into the circulation. Hormones of the Pituitary Gland The hormones of the pituitary gland send signals to other endocrine glands to stimulate or inhibit their own hormone production.
The anterior lobe releases hormones upon receiving releasing or inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus.
Relationship Between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
These hypothalamic hormones tell the anterior lobe whether to release more of a specific hormone or stop production of the hormone. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce hormones. FSH works with LH to ensure normal functioning of the ovaries and testes. GH is essential in early years to maintaining a healthy body composition and for growth in children.
In adults, it aids healthy bone and muscle mass and affects fat distribution. LH works with FSH to ensure normal functioning of the ovaries and testes. Prolactin stimulates breast milk production.